Losses in steel pipe

In case of pipe-type cables, the conductor current induces a current in the ferromagnetic steel pipe which causes additional losses. According to IEC, the losses in ferromagnetic steel pipes are part of the armour losses $W_{ar}$ for pipe-type cables. We consider them with a separate loss-factor.

Symbol
$W_{sp}$
Unit
W/m
Formulae
$\lambda_3 W_c$