# Skin and proximity effect coefficient a for PAC/GIL conductor

The equation for $z_c$ < 5 is identical in Cigré Guide 2018 (2003), Elektra 100 (1985), and Elektra 125 (1989).

The equation for $z_c$ > 30 is acc. Elektra 125 (1989) whereas in Cigré Guide 2018 (2003) and Elektra 100 (1985) the factor 1 is falsely outside the square-root.

Coefficients of the polynomial interpolation are taken from Table II of Elektra 125 (1989). The values are identical in CIGRE Guide 218 (2003).

Symbol
$a_c$
Formulae
 $\frac{7{z_c}^2}{315+3{z_c}^2}$ $z_c<5$ $\sqrt{\frac{z_c}{2}}-1$ $z_c>30$ $0.19701-1.56295{\cdot}{10}^{-1} z_c+7.3796{\cdot}{10}^{-2} {z_c}^2-9.02854{\cdot}{10}^{-3} {z_c}^3+6.27032{\cdot}{10}^{-4} {z_c}^4-2.69028{\cdot}{10}^{-5} {z_c}^5+7.0674{\cdot}{10}^{-7} {z_c}^6-1.04301{\cdot}{10}^{-8} {z_c}^7+6.62315{\cdot}{10}^{-11} {z_c}^8$ otherwise