Load loss constant coefficient

The coefficient $k_{LF}$ varies substantially for different voltage levels and consumer classe.

The constant coefficient can be estimated from the real load curves using the relationship $k_{LF} = \frac{\mu - LF^2}{LF - LF^2}$

Symbol
$k_{LF}$
Unit
p.u.
Used in
$\mu$
Choices
0.04CODI 1996 (minimum)
0.08IEEE 1988
0.1MV consumers
0.15LV commercial consumers
0.18LV residential consumers
0.2GTCP Eletrobras 1983
0.3Neher McGrath 1953
0.39LV heavy industrial activities