# Density of material

The density is used to calculate the mass of the cable which is used for cable pulling calculations.

The sources are:

• Metallic materials: engineeringtoolbox.com
• Insulation materials: myelectrical.com (mean value)
• Polyolefin insulation materials: lyondellbasell.com
• High and extra-high temperature insulation materials EVA, SiR and ETFE, FEP, PTFE and PFA: Leoni LEOMER 'Insulation material properties'
• PPLP: contains paper (0.85), PP (0.91) and oil/rosin (1.05) in case of mass impregnated HVDC cables so the value is expected to be around 0.9. In case of HVAC PPLP cables, which is not common anymore, mineral oil (0.88) is used and the value will be lower.
• Compounded Jute: matbase.com
• Butyl rubber: matbase.com
• Silyl Terminated Polyether: buildside.com
• Mass/Oil impregnated paper: acc. the book 'High Voltage Engineering' by F. Rizk (2014)
the insulation is made of kraft paper with 0.75 g/cm$^3$ and contains about 50% of the volume impregnating fluid. For oil impregnated (SCOF) cables mineral oil with 0.88 g/cm$^3$ is used and for mass impregnated oil/rosin with higher viscosity and 1.05 g/cm$^3$ is used.
• PVC/Bitumen tapes: mean value between the density of bitumen with 1.06 g/cm$^3$ taken from benzeneinternational.com and PVC
• Water-blocking tapes: scapa.com (mean value)
• Paper: Cigré Guide 720 'Fire issues for insulated cables in air'
• Aldrey (AL3): Value is taken from EN 50183 (2000).
• Bronze: Cu with up to 3% alloy of Mg (0.1 to 0.5%), Cd and Zn is used which is called 'Leitbronze' acc. to the book 'Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen in der Technik' by K. Dies (1967)

Note: Not all values listed below can be selected in the cable editor.

Symbol
$\zeta_M$
Unit
g/cm$^3$
Choices
IdValueReference values
PVC1.4
PE0.930.919-0.940
sPVC1.4≈PVC
sPE0.93≈PE
LDPE0.9190.919-0.925
MDPE0.9260.926-0.940
HDPE0.9410.941-0.970
XLPE0.923
XLPEf0.93
PP0.91
PPLP0.950/50% paper/PP, paper 50% soaked oil/rosin
PUR1.17
PS1.05
PA1.06
TPEE1.17
STPe1.56
TPEO0.96
POC1.4
PVDF1.7
ETFE1.7
EVA1.250.955-1.40
FPE0.65
FEP2.14
PET1.31
PFA2.15
PTFE2.15
HFFR1.55
FRNC1.56
NR1.6
EPR1.42
EPDM1.42≈EPR
CR1.23
CSM1.45
IIR1.251.15-1.35
PIB0.92
OilP1.28paper 50% soaked with mineral oil (0.88)
Mass1.19paper 50% soaked with oil/rosin (1.05)
CJ1.2860% jute + 40% PP
RSP1.1
BIT1.2
tape0.34
SiR1.25
fPOC0.9870% of POC
fPP0.6470% of PP
fPE0.6570% of PE
fPVC0.9870% of PVC
PRod0.4
PTube0.7
OilD1.28assuming similar to oil impregnated paper
Jute1.53
TY1.45
CW1.37
Paper0.850.8-0.9
Air0.00115at 35°C
Cu8.94
Al2.712
AL32.7
ENAW60602.7
Pb11.34
Brz8.91
CuSn8.8
CuZn8.55
Fe7.87
S7.85
SS7.48
Zn7.135
Ni8.908
Image
Materials Engineering Science Processing and Design, Figure 2.9 - M. Ashby et al. (2007)