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SymbolNameUnit
A $a_0$Coefficient a for partial transient temperature rise1/s
$a_{12}$Distance between phase 1 and 2mm
$a_{23}$Distance between phase 2 and 3mm
$a_{31}$Distance between phase 3 and 1mm
$A_{ab}$Cross-sectional area of armour beddingmm$^2$
$A_{ar}$Cross-sectional area of armourmm$^2$
$A_c$Cross-sectional area of conductormm$^2$
$a_c$Skin and proximity effect coefficient a for PAC/GIL conductor
$A_{comp}$Cross-sectional area of compartmentm$^2$
$A_d$Cross-sectional area of duct wallmm$^2$
$A_{d,fill}$Free cross-sectional area inside ductmm$^2$
$A_{di}$Surface of duct inner wallm$^2$
$A_{do}$Surface of duct outer wallm$^2$
$A_e$Surface of objectm$^2$
$A_{encl}$Cross-sectional area of enclosuremm$^2$
$a_{encl}$Skin and proximity effect coefficient a for PAC/GIL enclosure
$A_{er}$Surface of objectm$^2$
$A_f$Cross-sectional area of fillermm$^2$
$A_{fluid}$Cross-sectional area of fluidmm$^2$
$A_i$Cross-sectional area of insulationmm$^2$
$A_{it}$Cross-sectional area of insulation (IEC 60853)mm²
$A_j$Cross-sectional area of jacketmm$^2$
$A_k$Thermal property constant Amm/s$^{1/2}$
$a_m$Mean distance between the phasesmm
$A_{pipe}$Cross-sectional area of fluid-filled pipemm$^2$
$A_{prot}$Cross-sectional area of protective covermm$^2$
$a_{S1}$Length of 1st section (minor)p.u.
$a_{S2}$Length of 2nd section (medium)p.u.
$a_{S3}$Length of 3rd section (major)p.u.
$A_{sc}$Cross-sectional area of screenmm$^2$
$A_{scb}$Cross-sectional area of screen beddigmm$^2$
$A_{scs}$Cross-sectional area of screen servingmm$^2$
$A_{sh}$Cross-sectional area of sheathmm$^2$
$A_{shj}$Cross-sectional area of sheath jacketmm$^2$
$a_{shj}$Factor $a_{shj}$ for jacket around each core
$A_{skid}$Cross-sectional area of skid wiresmm$^2$
$A_{sp}$Cross-sectional area of steel pipemm$^2$
$A_t$Cross-sectional area of the tunnelm$^2$
$A_{tape}$Cross-sectional area of bedding/serving tapesmm$^2$
$a_{type}$Construction of armour
$\alpha_0$Constant depending on the burial depth
$\alpha_{ar}$Temperature coefficient of armour material1/K
$\alpha_{at}$Heat transfer coefficient to channel wallW/(K.m$^2$)
$\alpha_c$Temperature coefficient of conductor material1/K
$\alpha_{encl}$Temperature coefficient of enclosure material1/K
$\alpha_f$Phase shift°
$\alpha_{gas}$Thermal diffusivity for gasm$^2$/s
$\alpha_M$Factor $\alpha_M$
$\alpha_{sa}$Heat transfer coefficient for convectionW/(K.m$^2$)
$\alpha_{sc}$Temperature coefficient of screen material1/K
$\alpha_{sh}$Temperature coefficient of sheath material1/K
$\alpha_{skid}$Temperature coefficient of skid wire material1/K
$\alpha_{sp}$Temperature coefficient of steel pipe material1/K
$\alpha_{st}$Heat transfer coefficient for radiationW/(K.m$^2$)
$\alpha_{sys}$Inclination angle in degrees°
$\alpha_t$Conductor to surface attainment factor