References

Cableizer is based on international and national standards.

Cableizer is based mainly upon several standards from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

  • IEC 60038 2009 (Ed.7.0) Standard Voltages
  • IEC 60071-1 2006-01 (Ed.8.0) + Amd1 2010 Insulation co-ordination – Part 1: Definitions, principles and rules
  • IEC 60228 2004-11 (Ed.3.0) Conductors of insulated cables
  • IEC 60287 Electric Cables - Calculation of the current rating
    • Part 1-1 2014-11 (Ed.2.1) Current rating equations (100% load factor) and calculation of losses - General
    • Part 1-2 1993-11 (Ed.1.0) Current rating equations (100% load factor) and calculation of losses - Sheath eddy current loss factors for two circuits in flat formation
    • Part 1-3 2002-05 (Ed.1.0) Current rating equations (100% load factor) and calculation of losses - Current sharing between parallel single-core cables and calculation of circulating current losses
    • Part 2-1 2015-04 (Ed.2.0) Thermal resistance - Calculation of thermal resistance
    • Part 2-2 1995-05 (Ed.1.0) Thermal resistance - A method for calculating reduction factors for groups of cables in free air, protected from solar radiation
    • Part 2-3 2017-04 (Ed.1.0) Thermal resistance - Cables installed in ventilated tunnels
    • Part 3-1 2017-06 (Ed.2.0) Sections on operating conditions - Reference operating conditions and selection of cable type
    • Part 3-3 2007-05 (Ed.1.0) Sections on operating conditions - Cables crossing external heat sources
  • IEC 60502 Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages from 1 kv (Um = 1,2 kv) up to 30 kv (Um = 36 kv)
    • Part 1 2004 (Ed.2.0) + A1:2009 Cables for rated voltages of 1 kv (Um = 1,2 kv) and 3 kv (Um = 3,6 kv)
    • Part 2 2014 (Ed.3.0) Cables for rated voltages from 6 kV (Um = 7,2 kV) up to 30 kV (Um = 36 kV)
  • IEC 60840 2011 (Ed.4.0) Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages above 30 kV (Um = 36 kV) up to 150 kV (Um = 170 kV) – Test methods and requirements
  • IEC 60853 Electric Cables - Calculation of the cyclic and emergency current rating of cables
    • Part 1 1985 (Ed.1.0) + A1 1994 + A2 2008 Cyclic rating factor for cables up to and including 18/30 (36) kV
    • Part 2 1988 (Ed.1.0) + A1 2008 Cyclic rating of cables greater than 18/30 (36) kV and emergency ratings for cables of all voltages
    • Part 3 2002 (Ed.1.0) Cyclic rating factor for cables of all voltages, with partial drying of the soil
  • IEC 60949 1988 (Ed.1.0) + A1 2008-09 Calculation of the thermally-permissible short-circuit currents, taking into account non-adiabatic heating effects
  • IEC 62067 2011 (Ed.2.0) Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages above 150 kV (Um = 170 kV) up to 500 kV (Um = 550 kV) – Test methods and requirements
  • IEC TR 62095 2003-06 (Ed1.0) Electric cables – Calculations for current ratings – Finite element method
  • IEC 62440 2008 (Ed.1.0) Electric cables with a rated voltage not exceeding 450/750 V – Guide to use
  • IEC TR 62602 2009 (Draft Proposal) Conductors of insulated cables - Data for AWG and KCMIL sizes

Standard cables were designed according to recommendations in European Standards (EN) and Harmonized Documents (HD).

  • EN 50525 2011 Electric cables - Low voltage energy cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V (U0/U)
  • DIN EN 50565-1 2015 Electric cables - Guide to use for cables with a rated voltage not exceeding 450/750 V - Part 1: General guidance
  • HD 21 S1 2006 (Withdrawn) Cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V and having thermoplastic insulation
  • HD 603 S2 2016 Distribution cables of rated voltage 0,6/1 kV
  • HD 620 S2 2010 Distribution cables with extruded insulation for rated voltages from 3,6/6 (7,2) kV up to and including 20,8/36 (42) kV
  • HD 632 S2 2008 Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages above 36 kV (Um = 42 kV) up to 150 kV (Um = 170 kV)
  • VDE 0276-1000 Starkstromkabel Teil 1000 - Strombelastbarkeit, Allgemeines Umrechnungsfaktoren

Cableizer used the standardized values for wire diameters and conductor resistances for AWG sizes from several American standards.

  • ANSI UL 1581-2011 Reference Standard for Electrical Wires, Cables, and Flexible Cords
  • ASTM B2-00 Standard Specification for Medium-Hard-Drawn Copper Wire
  • ASTM B8-04 Standard Specification for Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors, Hard, Medium-Hard, or Soft
  • ASTM B226-04 Standard Specification for Cored, Annular, Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors
  • ASTM B231-04 Standard Specification for Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors
  • ASTM B258-02 Standard Specification for Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of AWG Sizes of Solid Round Wires Used as Electrical Conductors
  • ASTM B400-04 Standard Specification for Compact Round Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors
  • ASTM F1883-2013 Standard Practice for Selection of Wire and Cable Size in AWG or Metric Units

Other standards were consulted.

  • EPRI Underground Transmission Systems Reference Book Green Book 2006 (1014840)
  • ICEA P-32-382-2007 (R2013) Short Circuit Characteristics of insulated cables
  • ICEA P-45-482-2005 Short circuit performance of metallic shields and sheaths on insulated cables
  • ICEA P-54-440-2009 Ampacities of Cables Installed in Cable Trays
  • ICEA S-94-649-2000 Concentric neutral cables
  • IEEE Std 442-2017 Guide for Thermal Resistivity Measurements of Soils and Backfill Materials
  • IEEE Std 575-2014 Bonding Shields and Sheaths of Single-Conductor Power Cables
  • IEEE Std 635-2003 Guide for Selection and Design of Aluminum Sheaths for Power Cables

Cableizer consults CIGRE and Jicable

The User Guides from CIGRE are a good source for better understanding of electrotechnical topics and sometimes provide additional methods not published in the IEC standards.

  • Guide 194_2001 Construction, Laying and Installation Techniques
  • Guide 218_2003 Gas Insulated Transmission Lines (GIL)
  • Guide 272_2005 Large cross-sections and composite screens design
  • Guide 283_2005 Special Bonding of High Voltage Power Cable Systems
  • Guide 338_2007 Statistics of AC underground cables in power networks
  • Guide 531_2013 Cable Systems Electrical Characteristics
  • Guide 559_2013 Impact of EMF on current ratings and cable systems
  • Guide 606_2015 Upgrading and uprating existing cable systems
  • Guide 610_2015 Offshore generation cable connections
  • Guide 640_2015 A Guide for Rating Calculations of Insulated Cables
  • Guide 669_2016 Mechanical forces in large cross section cables systems
  • Guide 689_2017 Life cycle assessment of underground cables
  • Guide 714_2017 Long term performance of soil and backfill systems
  • Guide 720_2018 Fire issues for insulated cables in air
  • Guide 730_2018 Dry Air, N2, CO2 and N2-SF6 Mixtures for Gas-Insulated Systems
  • Guide 756_2019 Thermal monitoring of cable circuits and grid operators' use of dynamic rating systems
  • Guide 770_2019 Trenchless technologies
  • Guide 797_2020 Sheath bonding systems of AC transmission cables - design, testing, and maintenance
  • Guide 806_2020 Responsible management of electric and magnetic fields (EMF)

Electra provides information on the results or the progress of the technical activities of CIGRE, on the life of the Association and on the events organised.

  • Elektra024_1972 Current ratings of cables for cyclic and emergency loads
  • Elektra044_1976 Current ratings of cables for cyclic and emergency loads part 2
  • Elektra028_1973 The design of specially bonded cable systems
  • Elektra047_1976 The design of specially bonded cable systems part 2
  • Elektra066_1979 The calculation of continuous ratings for forced cooled cables
  • Elektra084_1982 The conditions controlling the drying-out of soil around power cables
  • Elektra087_1983 A simple formula for the calculation of the convective heat transfer between conductor and sheath in compressed gas insulated (CGI) cables (Vermeer1983)
  • Elektra087_1983 Computer method for the calculation of the response of single-core cables to a step function thermal transient
  • Elektra092_1984 Results of questionnaire on reliability of forced cooled cable installations (plus Erratum Elektra098_1985)
  • Elektra098_1985 The calculation of the effective external thermal resistance of cables laid in materials having different thermal resistivities
  • Elektra100_1985 Calculation of the continuous rating of single core, rigid type, compressed gas insulated cables in still air with no solar radiation
  • Elektra104_1986 Current ratings of cables buried in partially dried out soil
  • Elektra104_1986 Forced cooled cables - Calculation of thermal transients and cyclic loads
  • Elektra106_1986 Calculation of the continuous rating of single core, rigid type, compressed gas insulated cables in still air with solar radiation
  • Elektra113_1987 The calculation of continuous rating for forced-cooled high pressure oil-filled pipe-type cables (plus Erratum Elektra119_1988)
  • Elektra125_1989 Calculation of the continuous rating of three-core, rigid type, compressed gas insulated cables in still air and buried
  • Elektra128_1990 Guide to the protection of specially bonded cable systems against sheath overvoltages
  • Elektra128_1990 The steady state thermal behaviour of accessories for cooled cable systems
  • Elektra143_1992 Calculation of temperatures in ventilated cable tunnels
  • Elektra144_1992 Calculation of temperatures in ventilated cable tunnels Appendix I-IV (plus Erratum Elektra203_2003)
  • Elektra145_1992 Determination of a value of critical temperature rise for a cable backfill material
  • Elektra145_1992 Methods for calculating cyclic ratings for buried cables with partial drying of the surrounding soil
  • Elektra156_1994 Laying and installation of high voltage extruded cable systems - Literature evaluation data comparison
  • Elektra174_1997 Magnetic Field calculation in underground cable systems with ferromagnetic components
  • Elektra212_2004 Thermal ratings of HV cable accessories
  • Elektra222_2005 Special bonding of high voltage power cables
  • Elektra248_2010 Cable Systems in Multi Purpose or Shared Structures
  • Elektra265_2012 Overall cost comparison between cables and overhead lines
  • Elektra271_2013 Impact of EMF on current ratings
  • Elektra290_2017 Mechanical forces in large cross-section cables systems

Both CIGRE and Jicable provide valuable tutorials, webinars, and brochures and we regularly attend and participate at the sessions.

  • Brochure Implementation of Long AC HV and EHV Cable Systems (WG B1.47)
  • Webinar Offshore generation cables connections (WB B1.40)
  • Cigre Session 2016, Paris, France
  • Cigre Session 2018, Paris, France
  • Cigre Session 2020, Paris, France
  • Jicable 2015, Versailles, France
  • Jicable 2019, Versailles, France
  • Jicable 2021 HVDC, Liège, Belgium

Cableizer uses additional methods from technical publications and books.

We have published several technical publications.

We have integrated findings and methods from following papers (list is not exhaustive).

Following books we own, use, and recommended for reading.

  • Ampacity of H.V. Multi-Insulation Cables at Different Cooling Methods, by Mohammed Ramiz Almallah, Scholars' Press, 2016
  • Ampacity Optimization of Unequally Loaded Power Cables, by Wael Moutassem, VDM Verlag, 2008
  • Analysis of Nonlinear Heat Transfer in Electric Cables, by Dvorsky Karl, Südwestdeutscher Verlag für Hochschulschriften AG and Company KG, 2013
  • Auswahl und Bemessung von Kabeln und Leitungen, by Herbert Schmolke, Hüthig und Pflaum, 4. Auflage, 2010
  • Boden und Energiewende - Trassenbau, Erdverkabelung und Erdwärme, by verschiedene Editoren, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 2015
  • Bonding of Underground Single-Core Cables and Sheath Losses, by Ossama Gouda, Adel Farag, Lap Lambert Academic Publishing, 2013
  • Development of a Software Package for Calculating Current Rating of Medium Voltage Power Cables, by D.G.A.K. Wijeratna, J.R. Lucas et al., University of Moratuwa, 2003
  • Distributed Fiber Sensing and Dynamic Rating of Power Cables, by Sudhakar Cherukupalli, George Anders, IEEE Press, 2020
  • EHV AC Undergrounding Electrical Power - Performance and Planning, by Roberto Benato, Antonio Paolucci, Springer-Verlag London, 2010
  • Electric Cables Handbook by BICC Cables, by George F. Moore, Blackwell Science, 3. Edition 1997
  • Electrical Power Cable Engineering, by William A. Thue, 1999
  • Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution, by L.L. Grigsby, CRC Press, 3. Edition 2012
  • Elektrische Kraftwerke und Netze, by D. Oeding, B.R. Oswald, Vieweg+Teubner Verlag, 8th Edition 2016
  • Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables, by Filipe Faria da Silva, Claus Leth Bak, Springer-Verlag London, 2013
  • Symmetrische Komponenten in Drehstromsystemen, by August Hochrainer, Springer-Verlag, 1957
  • Extruded Cables For High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission - Advances in Research and Development, by G. Mazzanti, M. Marzinotto, John Wiley & Sons. 2013
  • Fundamentals of heat transfer, by S.S. Kutateladze, Academic Press, 1. Edition 1963
  • Handbook of Electric Power Calculations, by H. Wayne Beaty, Surya Santoso, McGraw-Hill Education, 4. edition 2015
  • High-Tension Underground Electric Cables, by Henry Floy, Electrical Publishing Company, 1909
  • High Voltage Engineering, by J.R. Lucas, University of Moratuwa
  • Kabel und Leitungen für Starkstrom - Grundlagen und Produkt-Know-How für das Projektieren von Kabelanlagen, by L. Heinhold, R. Stubbe, Publicis Publishing, 5. Auflage 1999
  • Kabelanlagen für Hoch- und Höchstspannung, by E.P. Peschke, R. v. Olshausen, Publicis MCF Verlag, 1998
  • Power Line Ampacity System - Theory, Modeling, and Application, by Anjan K. Deb, CRC Press, 2000
  • Rating of Electric Power Cables, by G.J. Anders, McGraw-Hill Professional, 1. Edition 1997
  • Rating of Electric Power Cables in Unfavorable Thermal Environment, by G.J. Anders, Wiley-IEEE Press, 1. Edition 2005
  • Submarine Power Cables, by T. Worzyk, Springer, 2009
  • The Mechanics of Soils and Foundations, by John Atkinson, Taylor and Francis, 2007
  • Thermal Design of Underground Systems, by B.M. Weedy, John Wiley & Sons, 1988
  • Underground Power Cables, by S. Y. King, N. A. Halfter, Longman Group Ltd., 1. Edition 1982

ABB / AEG

  • Einziehen von Kabeln in Rohre, AEG, 1979
  • XLPE Underground Cable Systems Users Guide, ABB, Rev.3, 2007
  • XLPE Land Cable Systems Users Guide, ABB, Rev.5, 2010
  • XLPE Submarine Cable Systems - Attachment to XLPE Land Cable Systems Users Guide, ABB, 2010

Brugg Cables

  • Technical User Guide of High-Voltage XLPE Cable Systems, Brugg Cables, 2006
  • Manual for Transportation and Cable Laying, Brugg Cables, 2011

Nexans

  • 60-500 kV High Voltage Underground Power Cables - XLPE insulated cables, Nexans, 2013
  • Technik der Mittelspannungskabel, Nexans, ca. 2012
  • Submarine Power Cables, Nexans, 2013
  • 6-36Kv Medium Voltage Underground Power Cables - XLPE insulated cables, Nexans, 2009

nkt cables

  • High Voltage Cable Systems - Cables and Accessories up to 550 kV, nkt cables, 2008

Southwire

  • Power Cable Installation Guide, Southwire, 2005

The Okonite Company

  • Engineering Handbook - Engineering Data for Copper and Aluminum Conductor Electrical Cables, The Okonite Company, 2015
  • Pipe Type Cables, The Okonite Company, 2014
  • Okonite HPGH Cables - Technical Guide Plus Drawings, The Okonite Company, 1999